The Evolution of Ericales: Recent Insights using both Morphology and Molecules
Sytsma, Kenneth J. , Walker, Jay B. , Schönenberger, Jürg , Anderberg, Arne A. .
Phylogenetics, biogeography, and radiation of Ericales.
THE diverse and species-rich order Ericales is examined from molecular, morphological, biogeographical, and ecological perspectives. Molecular phylogenetic studies have not only convincingly demonstrated the monophyly of the order comprising 23 families formerly placed in three different subclasses (Asteridae, Dilleniidae, and Rosidae) but have also resolved Ericales as sister to euasterids. Updates on phylogenetic relationships within the order, especially problematic basal nodes, are presented based on over 11 molecular markers and increased taxon sampling. Strongly supported groups, previously unrecognized or only weakly supported, include: (1) the ‘higher Ericales’ comprising all families except Balsaminaceae, Tetrameristaceae, Marcgraviaceae, Fouquieriaceae, Polemoniaceae, and Lecythidaceae; (2) a clade with Sapotaceae, Ebenaceae and the primuloid families; (3) a clade with Symplocaceae, Styracaceae, Diapensiaceae; and (4) a clade comprising the latter three families plus Theaceae, Roridulaceae, Actinidiaceae, Sarraceniaceae, Clethraceae, Cyrillaceae, and Ericaceae. The Ericales represents a transitional clade between rosid and euasterid lineages which is reflected in the homoplasy of various floral characters. Fossil dating indicates that the Ericales diversified around 109-103 Ma in the Early Cretaceous with almost all families present by the early Eocene (50 Ma). Tropical forests are inhabited early and often in the early radiation of Ericales where they are now important components, although temperate stem lineages evolved early as well. Diversification within Ericales in an ecological perspective is examined with respect to habitat, habit, floral form, and fruit type.[c.e.:srb]
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1 - University of Wisconsin Madison, Department of Botany, Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706-1381, USA
2 - Stockholm University, Department of Botany, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, SE-10691, Sweden
3 - Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Phanerogamic Botany, P.O. Box 50007, Stockholm, SE-104 05, Sweden
Presentation Type: Symposium or Colloquium Presentation
Date: Monday, July 31st, 2006
Time: 10:15 AM