Systematics Section / ASPT
Manchester, Steven R. , Deng, Min , Xiang, Qiu-Yun (Jenny) .
Systematics and fruit morphology of extant and fossil Mastixiaceae.
THE Mastixiaceae have two extant genera, Mastixia (two subgenera) and Diplopanax, both now confined to Asia. Molecular data indicate that this family is sister to Nyssaceae (Nyssa, Camptotheca, Davidia) within Cornales. The Mastixiaceae have an excellent fossil record of fruits in Europe and North America that reveals a greater morphological diversity than seen in the family today. We review the morphology and anatomy of fossil representatives based on specimens from the Early Eocene to Miocene of Europe and from Paleocene and Eocene of sites in western North America. We recognize a new occurrence of Mastixicarpum in the Paleocene of North Dakota and a new mastixioid fruit from the Eocene of Texas. To evaluate the relationships among fossil and extant representatives of this family, we compared morphological and anatomical characters of Diplopanax, Mastixia subg. Mastixia, Mastixia subg. Manglesia, with those of the fossil taxa Langtonia), Retinomastixia, Eomastixia, Tectocarya, and Beckettia. We applied many of the same characters employed previously by Kirchheimer, Mai, Tiffney, Haggard, Pigg, and Stockey but across a broader set of fossil and extant taxa (including representatives of both extant subgenera of Mastixia). The unilocular condition seen in extant Mastixia and Diplopanax occurs also in the fossil taxa Mastixicarpum, Tectocarya, and Retinomastixia, but fruits with multiple locules characterize Eomastixia (2-3 locules), Beckettia (2-4 locules), Langtonia (2 locules). Additional characters, more useful for inferring relationships, include the placement of vascular bundles, the presence or absence of secretory cavities or canals, and the anatomical composition of the meso-and epicarp. Mastixioids apparently disappeared from North America by the end of the Eocene, but persisted well into the Neogene in Europe. Despite their long fossil record in Europe and North America, the time of their arrival and/or establishment in Asia remains unknown.
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1 - Florida Museum of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, P.O. Box 117800, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA
2 - Kunming Institute of Botany, Department of Phytotaxonomy & Phytogeography, Chinese Academy of Sciences,, Kunming, Yunnan, 650204, China
3 - North Carolina State University, Department of Botany, Campus Box 7612, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27695-7612, USA
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Date: Tuesday, August 1st, 2006
Time: 2:45 PM